Handbook » Resources

Resources

ELA TIPS TO BECOME A GOOD WRITER

 

 

 

 

PREWRITE

Plan your work. Select a topic and brainstorm what you will say about it. Organize your thoughts and the facts that support them. Keep in mind your audience and your reason for writing.


Draft

 

Write your work. Use sentences and paragraphs to communicate the idea from your prewriting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVISE

Rethink your work. Correct any mistakes in your first draft, and look for ways to make your writing stronger. Work alone or with other people to edit your composition.

ppppeopp


 

 

 

 

 

PROOFREAD

Polish your work. Look one more time for errors in spelling or grammar. Check that punctuation and capitalization are correct. Make final changes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PUBLISH

Share your work. Give it to a friend, read it aloud to an audience, turn it into a book, or post it on a website.


 

 

 

 

REMEMBER

·         If you use someone else‟s work or words, you must cite the source.

·         All citations must adhere to APA reference citing. Google APA for additional information.

70

 

The Parts of Speech

 

 

Part of Speech

 

Definition

 

Examples

 

Usage(italics)

 

Noun

 

thing, person, place, or idea

 

park, cat, house, Joan, Canada, teacher,

 

This is my mother.  She drives a small

car.

 

We go to church in Canada.

 

Pronoun

 

replaces a noun

 

I, you, he, she, some, his, hers, him

 

They told him it was very expensive.

 

She left her coat at school.

 

Verb

 

action or state

 

(to) be, have, do, like, walk, run, talk, sing

English is the primary language of Americans.

 

I like to walk.

 

Adjective

 

describes/modifies a noun

 

some, good, big, red, well, interesting, beautiful

I have three cars. My red car is a Camaro.

 

The book is interesting.

 

Adverb

 

describes a verb, adjective or adverb and specifies in what manner, when, where or how much

 

hurriedly, rowdy, well, badly, very, really

 

She was really sick. He treats her badly. He quickly jumped to Tara’s defense.

 

Article

 

introduces nouns and sometimes are classified as adjectives

 

a, an, the

 

There are only three articles in the English language: a, an, and the.

 

Preposition

 

links a noun to another word

 

to, at, after, on, but

 

My mother took Polly to the doctor before

she went to work.

 

Conjunction

 

joins clauses, phrases, sentences or words

 

and, but, when, because

 

I like oreo and coconut cookies. I eat oreo cookies but I don’t eat coconut cookies.

 

Interjection

 

short exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence

 

ah!, oh!, ouch!, hey!, well!

Ouch! That really hurt!

Hey, watch where you are going!

 

71

 

PUNCTUATION NUGGETS

1.    Apostrophes

·         The apostrophe is used to form possessives (i.e., the church’s steeple, the school’s mascot, John’s car) and contractions (i.e., we’ve, what’s, he’s, they’re, can’t).

 

2.   Colon vs. Semicolon

·      Colons (:) are used in sentences to introduce that something follows like a quotation, example or a list.

·      Semicolons (;) are used to join two independent clauses, to separate main clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or to separate items in a list that already uses commas.

·      The colon and the semicolon can both be used to connect two independent clauses. When the second clause expands on or explains the first, use a colon. When the clauses are merely related, but the second does not follow from the first, use a semicolon.

·         Example-Colon: Barry wanted to know why I didn’t respond to his text: I hadn’t received it .

·      Example-Colon: Please bring the following items: a flashlight, a comfortable pair of hiking boots, and a jacket

·         Example-Semicolon: Ninety eight percent of southerners eat grits; the majority of northerners don’t eat grits.

·      Example-Semicolon: Dad is going bald; his hair is getting thinner and thinner.

 

3.      Commas

·      Use commas to indicate nonessential information.

·      If explanatory matter can be omitted without changing the general meaning of the sentence, it should be set off with commas. If the explanatory matter is essential to the meaning of the sentence, do not set it off with commas.

·         Example-Comma: America’s first president, George Washington, served from 1789 to 1797.

·      Example-Comma: He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base.

 

4.      Hyphen

·         Use a hyphen for compound adjectivesà when two or more words collectively serve as an adjective before the word they are modifying, those words should normally be hyphenated. Exception is given when the first word is an adverb ending in (-ly).

·      Example-Hyphen: A well-respected CEO gets a hyphen, whereas a CEO who is well respected does not.

·      Example-Hyphen: A widely known author does not require hyphenation.

·         Example–Hyphen: Compound numbers and fractions use hyphens all the time: three-fifths and twenty- five should contain hyphens.

·      Example-Hyphen: Some nouns, such as attorney-at-law, require hyphens in order to make the noun look complete.

 

5.    Parentheses

·      Parentheses should be used to clarify, for set asides, or for something that could be left out of the sentence that would not take away the meaning.

a)        I.e.  The hotel’s head chef (Susan’s cousin) will be preparing the food.

b)       I.e. John (and his crazy dog) was always there.

 

 

 

 

 

72

 

PUNCTUATION NUGGETS

 

6.    Quotation Marks

·      They are used to set off and represent exact language that has come from somebody else.

·         Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the quoted material is a complete sentence. I.e. Ms. Jones, who is our choreographer, said, “The students at this school dance better than those who took private dance lessons.”

·         Do not use a capital letter when the quoted material is a fragment or only a piece of the original material’s complete sentence. I. e. Although Ms. Jones has seen some really good dancers at dance schools, she stated NDMS dancers “are better” than most.

·      Quotation marks should be used with direct, not indirect quotes.

·         Periods and commas go inside quotation marks, even if they aren’t part of the material being quoted. All other punctuation marks go outside the quotation marks, unless they are part of the material being quoted. I.e. “Any further delay,” she said, “would result in a lawsuit.” I.e. His latest story is titled “The Beginning of the End”; wouldn’t a better title be “The End of the Beginning”?

 

7.      Exclamation Point

·      The exclamation point expresses strong feeling and is a mark of terminal punctuation. As such, it should not be followed by a period or question mark.

a)   I.e. What in the world are you doing outside!

·      When a quotation ends with an exclamation point, a comma that would ordinarily be placed inside the closing quotation mark is omitted.

a)   I.e. ““Get up!” Thomas yelled.

 

8.      Avoid multiple punctuation at the end of a sentence.

·      Never end a sentence with a question mark or exclamation point followed by a period. If a sentence ends with a period that is part of an abbreviation, do not add a second period.

 

9.      Punctuation Questions

·         Is it U.S.A. or USA? Co-worker or coworker? Lets or let’s? Teachers’ college or teachers college? Use a dictionary.

·      If in doubt, rewrite it so you can avoid having convoluted, confusing, or inelegant sentences.

 

Spelling Rules

·      I before E, except after C- or when sounded as A, as in neighbor or weigh

·      Final consonants are not doubled when the word ends in more than one consonant

a)   Example : transform  à     transformed or transforming

·      When words end in soft ce or ge, keep the e before able and ous

a)   Examples: advantageous, changeable, outrageous, likeable

·      Change the ending of verbs that end in ie, to y before adding ing.

a)   Examples: dieà dying              lie à lying

·      Change a final y to i before a suffix unless the suffix begins with i.

a)   defy  + ance àdefiance               b) copy + ing à copying

·      Double a final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.

a)   stop + ing à stopping                b) admit + edà admitted

 

 

 

73

 

COMMON PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND ROOTS

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

term

end, limit

determine, exterminate, terminal

 

-s, -es

 

plural, more than one

hats, boxes, dishes, beliefs

 

-ing

 

action or process

helping, skipping, seeing

 

-ed

 

past tense

jumped, helped

 

-er, -or

 

person connected with, comparative degree, one who, that which

teacher, bigger, colder, taller, conductor, survivor

un-

 

 

not, opposite of

unlock, unsweetened

re-

 

 

again, back

reread, rewrite, return, review

 

-est

 

superlative degree

biggest, coldest, tallest

 

-ful

 

full of

beautiful, painful,

 

-less

 

without

careless, helpless, childless

in-, im-,

il-, ir-

 

 

not

inactive, impossible, improper

dis-

 

 

not, opposite of

dislike, distrust, disagree

pre-

 

 

before

pretest, preplan, preeminent

tele-

 

 

far, distant

telegraph,

 

-ies

 

plural, more than one

parties, babies, cities

 

-ied

 

past tense

cried, pitied

 

-ly

 

characteristic of

badly, friendly, quickly

 

-y

 

characterized by, like

cloudy, fishy, sneaky

 

 

bio

life, living matter

biography, biology, antibiotic

 

 

graph/y

Writing, recording

seismograph, autograph,graphology

 

 

phon/o/e/y

sound

phonograph, microphone, telephone

 

 

per

through, throughout

permanent, permeate, persist

non-

 

 

not

nonfat, nonsense, nonchalant

over-

 

 

too much, above

overdone, overestimate, overhead

mis-

 

 

bad or badly, wrong or wrongly

misbehave, misspell, mischievous

de-

 

 

reduce down, away from

defeat, decrease, deform

sub-, under-

 

 

too little, below, under, beneath, secondary

underfed, underground, subway, subsoil, substitute

bi-

 

 

two

bicycle, binocular

tri-

 

 

three

tricycle, triangle

quad-

 

 

four

quadrilateral, quadrant

oct-

 

 

eight

octagon, octopus

 

-al, - ial

 

related to, characterized by

colonial, biennial, betrayal

 

 

tort

twist

distort, contortion, retort

 

-ation,ion,

-ition,tion

 

act of, state of , result of

attention, invitation, restriction, ignition, union, elevation

 

-ness

 

condition, state of

darkness, fairness, emptiness

 

-ment

 

act, process

employment, replacement

 

-en

 

made of, to make

wooden, dampen, strengthen

 

 

rupt

break, burst

bankrupt, rapture, disruptive

 

 

terr/a/i

land, earth

terrain, territory, extraterrestrial

 

 

geo

earth, ground, soil

geography, geology, geometry

74

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

 

 

phot/o

light

photograph, photogenic, photon

 

 

 

 

tract

pull, draw (drag)

tractor, attract, subtract, distract

 

 

 

 

meter, metr/y

measure

speedometer, metronome, thermometer, perimeter

 

 

en-, em-

 

 

to cause to be, to put into or onto, to go into or onto

encounter, enable, employ, embark, encircle

 

 

fore-

 

 

before, earlier

forearm, foreword, foresee

 

 

semi-

 

 

half

semicircle, semicolon

 

 

anti-

 

 

opposite, against

antibiotic, antifreeze

 

 

auto-

 

 

self

autograph, autonomy, automatic

 

 

multi-

 

 

many, much

multicolor, multifamily

 

 

poly-

 

 

many, much

polygon, polygamy

 

 

deca-, deci-

 

 

ten

decathlon, decade, decimal

 

 

kilo-

 

 

one thousand, (1000)

kilogram, kilowatt, kilometer

 

 

milli-, mille-

 

 

one thousand, (1000)

millennium, millimeter

 

 

centi-

 

 

one hundred, (100)

centimeter, centipede, centigram

 

 

 

-able, - ible

 

can be done

enjoyable, sensible, likable

 

 

 

-ive, - ative, - tive

 

inclined/tending toward an action

festive, talkative, sensitive

 

 

 

-logy, - ology, - ologist

 

science of, study of, one who studies

biology, chronology, anthropolgist

 

 

 

-ence, - ance

 

act or condition of

persistence, excellence, assistance

 

 

 

-an, -ian

 

one having a certain skill, relating to, belonging to

electrician, magician, American, suburban

 

 

 

 

ject

to throw

inject, objection, project, eject

 

 

 

 

struct

to build

construct, instructor

 

 

 

 

vor, vour

eat

carnivorous, voracious, devour

 

 

 

 

spir

breathe

inspire, transpire, spirit

 

 

 

 

vid, vis

to see

vision, envision, evidence

 

 

 

 

jud

law

judgment, judiciary, judicial

 

 

 

 

log/o

word or study

prologue, apology, eulogy, monologue, logic, dialogue

 

 

 

 

path

feeling, emotion

apathetic, empathy, sympathy

 

 

 

 

astro, aster

star

astronaut, astronomy, asterisk

 

 

 

 

mit, miss

to send, let go

emit, transmit, admit, missile, admission, dismissed, commit

 

 

 

 

aud/i/io

hear

audience, audiovisual, audition

 

 

 

 

dict

to speak

dictator, predict, verdict

 

 

inter-

 

 

between, among

intercept, interstate,international

 

 

trans-

 

 

across/change/through/beyond

transformation, transfer, transportation

 

 

super-

 

 

above/on top of/ beyond

superfine, superhuman, supersonic

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

“Change Is Inevitable, Progress Is Intentional” North District Middle School Handbook

 

 

2018

75

 

                 

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

micro-

 

 

small/minute

microbiology, microscope

 

 

 

-ent, -ant

 

an action, condition

student, contestant, immigrant

 

 

 

-ent, -ant

 

causing a specific action

obedient, absorbent, abundant

 

 

 

-ity, -ty

 

state of/quality of

prosperity, equality

 

 

 

-ic

 

relating to/ characterized by

energetic, historic, stoic

 

 

 

-ize

 

to make/ to cause to become

fertilize, criticize, apologize

 

 

 

-age

 

result of an action/ collection

manage, drainage, acreage

 

 

 

-ous,eous,

-ious

 

full of/ characterized by

adventurous, nervous, mysterious, courteous

 

 

 

 

port

to carry

portable, transport, export, portfolio

 

 

 

 

scribe(scrib), script

to write

describe, manuscript, inscribe

 

 

 

 

spectro, spect, spec

to see, watch, observe

prospect, respect, specimen

 

 

 

 

vac

empty

vacate, evacuate, vacancy

 

 

 

 

vocare (voc- vok)

to call or summon

vocal, vocabulary, vocation, voice

 

 

 

 

hydr/o

water, liquid

hydrogen, hydrant, hydraulic

 

 

 

 

chron/o

time

chronological, synchronize, chronic

 

 

 

 

therm/o

heat

thermometer, thermostat, thermos

 

 

 

 

bene

good, well

benefit, benign

 

 

com-, con-

 

 

with, together

community, conjunction, conspire

 

 

ex-, exo-

 

 

out of, from

exterior, external, exoskeleton

 

 

pro-

 

 

forward

progress, proceed, produce

 

 

se-

 

 

apart

separate, select

 

 

retro-

 

 

back, backwards

retroactive, retrograde, retrospective

 

 

 

-fy

 

to make, to form into

fortify, solidify, liquify

 

 

 

-hood

 

state, quality, condition of

neighborhood, childhood, brotherhood

 

 

 

-ice

 

state or quality of

justice, service, accomplice, apprentice, injustice

 

 

 

-some

 

characterized by a thing, quality, state, or action

awesome, burdensome, winsome, quarrelsome

 

 

 

-ward

 

in the direction of

forward, westward, toward

 

 

 

-ish

 

like, having the characteristics of, inclined or tending to

childish, girlish, impish, freakish, bookish, oldish

 

 

 

 

ad

to, toward

adequate, adhere, adjective, advertise

 

 

 

 

amo, amatum

love

amateur, amiable, amorous, enamored

 

 

 

 

aqua

water

aquatic, aquarium, aquamarine

 

 

 

 

arbor, arboris

tree

arboretum, arborvitae

 

 

 

 

cum

with, together

cumbersome,accumulate,document

 

 

 

 

dendron

tree

dendrophile, dendrometer

 

 

 

 

dia

across, through

diadem, diameter, diabolical

 

 

 

 

facio, factum

make, do

factory, manufacture, deface

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

“Change Is Inevitable, Progress Is Intentional” North District Middle School Handbook

 

 

2018

76

 

                 

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

 

 

figo, fixum

attach

fixture, crucifix, affix, prefix, suffix

 

 

 

 

helios

sun

helium, heliotrope

 

 

 

 

ignis

fire

igneous, ignite, ignition

 

 

 

 

inter

between

international, interject, interlude

 

 

 

 

jungo, junctum

join

conjunction, junction

 

 

 

 

kinesis, cinema

movement

kinetic, kinesiology, cinematographer

 

 

 

 

luna

moon

lunar, lunatic, lunancy, lunambulist

 

 

 

 

cede, ceed, cess

go, yield

exceed, recede, success

 

 

 

 

magnus

large, big

magnify, magnitude, magnificent, magnanimous

 

 

 

 

phil

love

philosopher, Phildaelphia,

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

 

 

phobia

fear

, claustrophobia, hydrophobia

 

 

 

 

pon

put, place

opponent, ponder, postpone

 

 

 

 

pyr

fire

pyrotechnics, pyretic, pyrometer

 

 

 

 

sci

know

science, conscience, ,omniscience

 

 

 

 

sol

sun

solar, solarium, parasol, solstice

 

 

 

 

son

sound

unison, sonnet, consonant

 

 

 

 

stella

star

stellar, constellation, interstellar

 

 

 

 

syn, sym

with, together, same

synchronize, synthesis, symmetry, sympathy, synonym

 

 

 

 

temp

time

temporal, temporary, tempo, extemporaneous, contemporary

 

 

 

 

thesis

put, place

thesis, theme parenthesis, synthesize

 

 

 

 

trans

across

transcend, transcript, transaction

 

 

 

 

tropos

turning

tropics, tropical, phototropic

 

 

 

 

verbum

word

verb, proverb, verbatim, verbalize, verbose, verbiage

 

 

 

 

verto, versum

turn

reverse, controversial, diversity

 

 

 

 

vince, vic

conquer

convince, invincible, victory

 

 

hom-, homo-

 

 

same

homonym, homophone, homogeneous, homeostasis

 

 

hype-

 

 

over, too much

hypertension, hyperactive, hyperbole

 

 

mid-

 

 

middle

midsummer, midnight, midsection

 

 

neo-

 

 

new, recent, revived

Neolithic, neonatal, neoplasm, neon

 

 

 

-ide

 

chemical

pesticide, sulfide, oxide

 

 

 

-ways

 

in what manner

always, sideways, alleyways

 

 

 

 

auto

self, same, one

autocrat, autograph, automatic

 

 

 

 

annus

year

annual, annals

 

 

 

 

bibli

book

bibliography, Bible, bibliomania

 

 

 

 

capt, ceive

take, hold

perceive, captivate

 

 

 

 

centum

hundred

century centimeter, percent

 

 

 

 

corpus

body

corporation, corpse, corpulence

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

“Change Is Inevitable, Progress Is Intentional” North District Middle School Handbook

 

 

2018

77

 

                 

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

 

 

decem

ten

decimeter, decimal

 

 

 

 

demos

the people, the citizens

democracy, demography, epidemic

 

 

 

 

dens, dentis

tooth

dentist, orthodontist, indent, dental

 

 

Prefixes

Suffixes

Roots

Definition

Examples

 

 

 

 

digitus

finger, toe, inch

digit, prestidigitation

 

 

 

 

dormio

sleep

dormitory, dormant, dormouse

 

 

 

 

duo

two

duet, duel, duplicate

 

 

 

 

frater, fratris

brother

fraternity, fraternize, fraternal

 

 

 

 

liber, libri

book, free

library, librarian, liberty, liberal

 

 

 

 

lithos

stone

lithograph, monolith

 

 

 

 

manus

hand

manufacture, manuscript

 

 

 

 

mater, matris

mother

matriarch, maternal, matrimony

 

 

 

 

mille

thousand

mile, millimeter, millenium

 

 

 

 

nomen, nominis

name

nominate, denominator, nomenclature

 

 

 

 

novem

nine

novennial, novemdigitate

 

 

 

 

octo

eight

octopus, octagon, octogenarian

 

 

 

 

pater, patris

father

patriarch, patron, patriotism

 

 

 

 

pes, pedis

foot

pedestrian, pedicure, pedometer

 

 

 

 

petros

stone, rock

petrified, petroleum, petroglyph

 

 

 

 

polis

city

metropolis, political, policy

 

 

 

 

pop

people

population,

 

 

 

 

pre

before, in front of

predict, preamble, precursor

 

 

 

 

pro

for, before, forward, in place of

profess, pronoun, proclaim, problem, proliferate

 

 

 

 

pneum/o

breathing, lung, air, spirit

pneumonia, pneumatic

 

 

 

 

ambi

both, on both sides

ambidextrous, ambiguous

 

 

 

 

anthrop/o

human

anthropology, philanthropy

 

 

 

 

cert

sure

ascertain, certain, certify

 

 

 

 

circum

around, about

circumvent, circumscribe, circumspect

 

 

 

 

claim, clam

shout, speak out

clamor, exclaim, proclamation

 

 

 

 

cerebr/o

brain

cerebral, cerebrate

 

 

 

 

fract, frag

break

fracture, fragile, fragment,fraction

 

 

 

 

loqu, locu

speak

eloquent, loquacious, elocution

 

 

 

 

merge, mers

dip, dive

,submerge, immerge, immerse

 

 

 

 

mega

great, large, million

megaphone, megastructure

 

 

 

 

purg

clean

purge, purgatory, expurgate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Change Is Inevitable, Progress Is Intentional” North District Middle School Handbook

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

78

 

                 

 

MATH FACTS

I.                   

       
     
   
 


The Number System

II.   Operations

a)                 Absolute Value is the distance away from zero.  It will always be positive and it is symbolized by | |.

i.e |2| = 2 because 2 is 2 units from zero                             i.e. |-2| = 2 because -2 is 2 units from zero

 

b)                Integer Addition Rules                                                            c) Integer Subtraction Rules

·         Same signs, add and keep sign                                               Change subtraction sign to addition,

i.e. (+3 + +4= +7)  &   (-3 + -4 = -7)                                       change sign following to opposite,

·         Different signs, subtract and take sign                                   and follow addition rules.

of number with highest absolute value.                                   i.e. {(-8 - +3) à -8 + -3 = -11}

{i.e. -5 + +8= +3} & {+5 + -8= -3}                                         i.e. {(-8 - -3) à -8 + +3= -5}

d)      Multiplication of Integers                                                           e) Division of Integers

·         Same signs, answer is positive                                                  Same signs, answer is positive

·         Different signs, answer is negative                                          Different signs, answer is negative

 

III.    Exponents and Powers

f) an =52 àa is the base and n is the exponent or power; the power tells you how many times to multiply the base by itself;  5 is the base and 2 is the exponent à 5·5 = 25

 

g) a-1= 1/a  and   1/a-1  = a;  2-1= 1/21   and   ½-1= 2

h)    an·amàsince the bases are the same, you add the exponents together. {i.e. 32  ·33à35   = 243}

Proof: 32 = 9    and  33= 27   à 9 · 27 = 243 ; bases must be the same

i)   an/ am à since the bases are the same, you subtract the exponents: an – mà  34/33à 34 – 3à 31à 3

Proof: 34= 81    and  33= 27   à 81 ÷ 27 = 3;  bases must be the same

Examples to consider: 1)  25/23à 2 5-3à 22=4          2) 23/25à23-5à 2-2à ¼  (see “g” above)

j) (am)n  = am·nà amnà (23)2 =23·2=26 =2·2·2·2·2·2= 64   Proof: 23= 8 and 82=64

 

 

 

79

 

MATH FACTS

IV.   Order of Operations-Hierarchy of Math Operations

·         Do the operation within the parentheses (or any enclosure symbol) first

·         Powers/exponents are next

·         Multiplication and division should be done from left to right next

·         Addition and subtraction from left to right is last

 

Example 1: Evaluate {3 + 6 · (5 + 4) ÷ 3 – 7} à{ 3 + 6 · (9) ÷ 3 – 7}à{ 3 + 54 ÷ 3 – 7}à{3 +18 – 7}à{14}

Example 2:  Evaluate {9 - 5 ÷ (8 - 3) · 2 + 6} à{9 -5÷5·2+6}à {9 -1·2+6} à{9 -2 + 6}à {13}

Example 3:  Evaluate {3 · ( 5 + 8 ) - 22  ÷4 + 3}à{3 · 13 - 22÷4 + 3}à{3 · 13 - 4 ÷ 4 + 3à{3 · 13 – 1+3}

è  {39 - 1 + 3}à {41}

 

V.   Basics of Algebra

·         What is algebra? Algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols. In elementary algebra, those symbols (today written as Latin and Greek letters) represent quantities without fixed values, known as variables.

 

·         An algebraic expression is a collection of letters and numbers combined by the four basic arithmetic operations. Here are some examples of algebraic ... 7 + 2x, 8x, 3x+y, 3x-4y, x/(x+y), x2, (x+y)2

1)                The numbers in these expressions that are not attached to a letter are called a constant such as the “7” in the expression {7 + 2x}

2)                The numbers in these expressions that are attached to a letter are called coefficients such as the “2” in 7 + 2x, the “8” in 8x, the “3” and the “1” in 3x + y

3)                When you don’t see a number attached to a variable such as “y” in the expression 3x+y, then the coefficient is 1.

4)                A term is a mathematical expression involving multiplication or division. Terms are separated by an addition or subtraction sign. Example: 5a is one term, 5a -8 is two terms, and 3a2 -4a + 5 is three terms.

5)                Like/similar terms are terms that have the same variables and exponents, written in any order. The coefficients do not have to be the same. Examples 5a and 8a are like terms, -2a2 and 5a2 are like terms, 8a2 and 9a3 are not like terms because their exponents are different, 2x2 and 2y2 are not the same because they don’t have the same variable.

 

·         Operating with algebra

1)                The expression (7 + 2x) should be interpreted/read as “7 plus 2 times the value of x

2)                Given (7 + 2x) and told to evaluate the expression when x=3 you should substitute 3 in for x and you would then have the expression (7 + 2·3) à (7 + 6) = 13. (Order of Operations)

3)                Addition and Subtraction: Only like terms can be added or subtracted, that is the coefficient values of the like terms. I.e.  {2x + 3y – 5 + 6y + 4x + 9=  (2x+4x) +(3y + 6y) + (-5 + 9)à6x + 9y +4}

4)                Any terms can be multiplied and you can use the rules for exponents when the bases are the same; Example: (5x3y8)(2x4y6) à (5·2)( x3· x4)(y· y6) = 10x7y14

5)                Any terms can be divided and you can use the rules for exponents when the bases are the same; Example: (35x3y8)(7x4y6) à (35÷7)( x3-4)(y8-6) = 5x-1y2 à 5y2     (See III-Exponents and Powers- g)

x

·         Properties of Numbers

1)                Commutative: {a + b = b + a}   and  {a – b = a + (-b)}

2)                Associative:    {(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)}  and  {(a – b) – c = a +(-b + -c)}

3)                Distributive: {a(b + c) = ab + ac} and {a(b –c) = ab – ac}

4)                Double Negative: -(-a) = a

5)                Addition and Subtraction Properties of Equality: {If a=b, then a+c=b+c} and {a-c=b-c}

80

 

·      Properties of Numbers (continued)

6)                Multiplication and Division Properties of Equality: {If a=b, then ac=bc} and {a/c = b/c when c≠0}

7)                Symmetric: {If a=b, then b=a}

 

·      Symbolic Representation

1)                The symbol “=” means is equal to

2)                The symbol “ ≠ ” means is not equal to

3)                The symbol “ > ” means is greater or more than; can be interpreted as not less than

4)                The symbol “ ≥ ” means is greater than or equal to

5)                The symbol “ < “ means is less than or not more than; can be interpreted as not more than

6)                The symbol “≤ ” means is less than or equal to

 

·      Ratio, Proportion, and Percent

1)                Ratios compare two values or quantities and can be written as such: 5 to 8, 5:8, 5/8, or 5

2)                Percents compare numerical values to 100.

a.        They can be written using the % signà 30%

b.        They can be written as a fractionà 30% =  30/100 = 3/10

{the percent value is your numerator and 100 is your denominator}

c.        They can be written as a decimalà 30% = .30

{move the decimal point two places to the left and drop the percent sign}

3)                Change a decimal number to a percent: Ex.  .56= 56%, à

a.        {move the decimal point two places to the right and add the percent sign after the number}

4)                Proportions are equivalent ratios or fractions: Ex. {4 to 5 as 8 is to 10;  4:5::8:10  and 4/5=8/10}

5)                Solving proportions:  Ex .  4 = n           1) Cross multiplyà 5·n = 4·40  à 5n=160

5     40          2) Divide-à  n = 160 ÷ 5 à n = 32

6)                Percent Problems can be solved using proportion:

a)   What percent of 180 is 40?

“is” number %     à  40 = n     à  180·n = 40·100à 180n = 4000 à n= 4000÷180=22.2% “of” number            100        180    100

 

·      Commonly Used Formulas

a)        Simple Interest: i= prt à i= interest, p= principal, r= rate or percentage rate, t= time expressed in the same period as the rate

b)       Compound Interest: A= p(1 + r/n)nt : A=total amount, p = principal, r = rate of interest, t= time expressed in years, n= number of periods per year

c)        % of Decrease à amount of decrease = % decrease à solve as a proportion original value                                    100

d)       % of Increase à amount of increase = % increase à solve as a proportion original value                                    100

e)        % of Discountà amount of discount = % discountà solve as a proportion original value                                    100

f)        % of Markupà amount of markup = % markup à solve as a proportion original price                           100

g)       % of Profità amount of profit = % profità solve as a proportion total income                    100

h)       % of Commissionà amount of commission = % commissionà solve as a proportion sales                                     100

 

·      Coordinate Plane

 

 

 

·      Basic Geometry

1)                Perimeter is the distance around any polygon and is found by adding the lengths of all sides.

2)                Area is the amount of space inside a flat figure.

3)                Four sided figures are:

a)    rectangle        b) parallelogram              c) square                        d) rhombus      e) trapezoid

                                               

 

 

4)                Parallel lines are two lines on a plane that never meet. They are always the same distance apart.

 

5)                Perpendicular lines are lines that are at right angles (90 ) to each other.

 

 

6)                The Pythagorean Theorem: Each right triangle has two legs and a hypotenuse, respectively a and b are the legs and c is the hypotenuse. The length of the hypotenuse of the triangle is the longest side.

 

 

SCIENCE FACTS

 

 

Scientific Equations

 

I.  Electricity

a)     P = V · I ; Power = Voltage · Current

b)     V = I · R ; V=potential (volt,v)  I =current (ampere, a)    R=resistance (ohm,Ω)

c)     Q = I ·T; Charge = Current · Time

d)     E = V ·Q; Energy = Voltage · Charge

e)     E= V ·I · T; Energy = Voltage · Current ·Time

 

II.   Energy

a)     Efficiciency (%) = (useful energy out ÷ total energy in) ·100

b)     GPE = mgh; GPE= Mass · Gravity · Height

c)     KE = ½ MV2; Kinetic Energy = 0.5 ·mass · velocity2

d)     W = F · d; W= work Done(joule, j)  F=force (newton, N)  d= distance (meter, m)

e)     W = E ; Work done = Energy transferred

f)      P = E ÷ t ; Power = Energy ÷ time

g)     E = c · m · Ɵ; Energy = Specific heat capacity · mass ·change in temperature

 

III.   Forces and Motion

 

a)     S = d ÷ t ; speed = distance ÷ times

b)     A= (v-u) ÷ t; acceleration = change in velocity ÷ time

c)     F= m · a ; F= force(newton, N) m =mass(kilogram, kg)  a= acceleration (m/s2)

d)     W= m · g; Weight = mass ·gravity

e)     P= m · v ; Momentum = mass ·velocity

f)      (mv – mu)= F · t ; Change in momentum = Force · time

g)     d= m ÷ v; density= mass ÷ volume

h)     p=F ÷ a; Pressure= force ÷ area

i)       m=F · d; moment=force · perpendicular distance from pivot

 

IV.  Waves

 

a)        v = f · λ.;  velocity  =  frequency  · wavelength.

 

SCIENCE FACTS

 

THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Planet

Distance from Sun

Length of a Solar Orbit

Interesting Facts

Mercury

36 million miles

88  earth days

·        Smallest planet

·        Diameter at equator is 3,032 miles

Venus

67 million miles

225 earth days

·         Spins in opposite direction of earth

·         Diameter at equator is 7,521 miles

Earth

93 million miles

365 earth days

·         Only planet known to have life

·         Diameter at equator is 7,926 miles

Mars

142 million miles

687 earth days

·         Has polar ice caps  and frozen water

·         Diameter at equator is 4,222 miles

Jupiter

484 million miles

12 earth years

·         Has at least 62 known moods

·         Diameter at equator is 88,846 miles

Saturn

886 million miles

29 earth years

·         Could float in water due to low density

·         Diameter at equator is 74,898 miles

Uranus

1.8 billion miles

84 earth years

·         Tilts sideways;poles face sun  ½ the time

·         Diameter at equator is 3,032 miles

Neptune

2.8 billion miles

165 earth years

·         Neptune’s moon orbits in the opposite direction of the planet’s orbit

·         Diameter at equator is 30,777 miles

Pluto

No longer considered a planet

A  mnemonic device for  remembering order of planets from moon

 

~My Very Educated  Mother Just Served Us Noodles~

 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

(Vertebrates vs. Invertebrates)

Vertebrates                                                                    Invertebrates

1)    Have a backbone                                                                          1)  Don’t have a backbone

2)    Five specific vertebrates                                                              2)  Eleven specific vertebrates

a)    reptiles                                                                                           a)  protozoa

b)    fish                                                                                                 b) flatworms

c)    amphibians                                                                                      c) annelid worms

d)    birds                                                                                               d) echinoderms

e)    mammals                                                                                         e) coelenterates

f)   arthropods

g)    molluscs

h)    arachnids

i)    crustaceans

j)    insects

k)    myriapods

 

SCIENCE FACTS

 

Did You Know?

1.  Water is an excellent conductor of electricity.

2.  Do not mix ammonia and bleach together.

3.  Acid into water, never water into acid.

4.  What goes up, must come down.

5.    An object at rest stays at rest… : …because of Newton’s First Law of Motion.

6.    An object in motion stays in motion… : …also due to Newton’s First Law of Motion.

7.    Matter is neither created nor destroyed.

8.    Energy is neither created nor destroyed.

9.    What constitutes a chemical change. : Chemical changes – such as burning, cooking, decomposition, and others – permanently alter the composition of an object.

10.   What constitutes a physical change. : Unlike chemical changes, those of the physical variety (cutting, carving, breaking, etc.) only alter the shape or form of an object and leave their core compositions intact.

11.   Red and yellow, kill a fellow… : …red and black, friend of Jack. This mantra helps amateur and professional naturalists alike tell the difference between the deadly coral snake and the entirely harmless scarlet king snake.

12.   Spiders are not insects- many people lump spiders in with the insects, but their eight legs, simplistic eye structure, and lack of wings do not place them in that classification. Rather, biologists consider them arachnids, related more to scorpions and ticks than wasps and ants.

13.   Dolphins and whales are not fish- because of their shape and aquatic habitat, people continuously mistake dolphins, whales, and porpoises as fish. As endothermic creatures with hair, mammary glands, and the ability to give birth to live young, they fully qualify as mammals – specifically, cetaceans.

14.   Bats are not birds-due to the fact that they actually fly rather than glide, many people still adhere to the belief that bats are birds. In reality, their hair, endothermic body heating, milk production, and giving birth to live young land them squarely in the mammalian classification.

15.   Never put a magnet near electronics-magnets and their accompany fields can negatively interfere with or outright damage most electronics.

16.   Frozen water is capable of cracking metal containers-even though cold contracts, the act of freezing water creates a solid with the dangerous ability to split open even metal confines.

17.   A light year is not a unit of time-although the term “year” factors into the nomenclature, a light year actually measures extremely long distances and is used in mapping galaxies, planets, stars, and other astronomical phenomena.

18.   Heat expands-heat causes the atoms and molecules of a substance to vibrate more, and subsequently expand as a result.

19.   Lightning is electricity-Many people find lightning dramatic and frightening, but few pause to remember that it is, in fact, a massive discharge of electricity resulting from an imbalance of positive and negative particles.

20.   Thunder is the sound of lightning heating up atmospheric gas-because sound travels significantly slower than light (the fastest known element in the universe), thunder will always lag behind a lightning strike.

21.   Computers cannot do anything without a human command at some point-although computer technology

is capable of calculations and processes far faster than that of a human brain, at some point in a person had to give the commands that needed execution.

22.   Space is not a complete vacuum.

23.   Rats do not carry the plague-rats in and of themselves are never actually to blame for the onset of bubonic plague

– in spite of their abundance, they did not inherently cause the Black Death and other instances

24.   Humans are not the only animals who use tools.- humanity oftentimes arrogantly points to its use of tools as one reason it stands as superior to other species. However, a diverse number of animals possess the intelligence and resourcefulness to creatively use elements of their environments to make their lives easier.

25.  Hair and nails do not continue to grow after death. : Vampire mythos and other tales of the dead often declare that hair and nails keep growing long after an individual has been buried. While the concept makes for intriguing speculative fiction, it fully remains just that – untrue! As the human body decomposes, the skin begins shrinking back and creates the illusion that the subcutaneous bits of hair and nails that begin peeking out are actually actively growing. Keratin – the substance that comprises both nails and hair – dies along with the body.

85

 

SCIENCE FACTS

 
   

 

The Human Skeleton

 

86

 

SCIENCE FACTS

 

 

 

THE PERIODIC TABLE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87

 

I.                  United States of America- The fifty states and their capitals

State

Capital

 

State

Capital

 

 

 

 

 

Alabama

Montgomery

 

Montana

Helena

Alaska

Juneau

 

Nebraska

Lincoln

Arizona

Phoenix

 

Nevada

Carson City

Arkansas

Little Rock

 

New Hampshire

Concord

California

Sacramento

 

New Jersey

Trenton

Colorado

Denver

 

New Mexico

Santa Fe

Connecticut

Hartford

 

New York

Albany

Delaware

Dover

 

North Carolina

Raleigh

Florida

Tallahassee

 

North Dakota

Bismarck

Georgia

Atlanta

 

Ohio

Columbus

Hawaii

Honolulu

 

Oklahoma

Oklahoma City

Idaho

Boise

 

Oregon

Salem

Illinois

Springfield

 

Pennsylvania

Harrisburg

Indiana

Indianapolis

 

Rhode Island

Providence

Iowa

Des Moines

 

South Carolina

Columbia

Kansas

Topeka

 

South Dakota

Pierre

Kentucky

Frankfort

 

Tennessee

Nashville

Louisiana

Baton Rouge

 

Texas

Austin

Maine

Augusta

 

Utah

Salt Lake City

Maryland

Anapolis

 

Vermont

Montpelier

Massachusetts

Boston

 

Virginia

Richmond

Michigan

Lansing

 

Washington

Olympia

Minnesota

Saint Paul

 

West Virginia

Charleston

Missippi

Jackson

 

Wisconsin

Madison

Missouri

Jefferson City

 

Wyoming

Cheyenne

 

II.   US MAP

 

 

88

 

III.   The Preamble To The Constitution of The United States

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 

IV.  Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments of Constitution)

 

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. Written by James Madison in response to calls from several states for greater constitutional protection for individual liberties, the Bill of Rights lists specific prohibitions on governmental power.

The Bill of Rights is a list of limits on government power. For example, what the Founders saw as the natural right of individuals to speak and worship freely was protected by the First Amendment’s prohibitions on Congress from making laws establishing a religion or abridging freedom of speech. For another example, the natural right to be free from unreasonable government intrusion in one’s home was safeguarded by the Fourth Amendment’s warrant requirements.

Other precursors to the Bill of Rights include English documents such as the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights, and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.

Amendment I

 

a)        Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

 

·         Amendment II

b)       A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

 

 

·         Amendment III

c)        No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 

·         Amendment IV

d)       The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

·         Amendment V

e)        No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

89

 

·         Amendment VI

f)        In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

 

·         Amendment VII

g)       In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

·         Amendment VIII

h)       Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

·         Amendment IX

i)         The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

·         Amendment X

j)         The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

 

V.  United States of America Government

·         The U.S. government has three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. Each branch has its own responsibilities and also has the ability to check the powers of the other two branches. This ensures that the government is balanced and no branch or person has too much power.

·         Legislative branch makes laws

·         Executive branch carries out the laws

·         Judicial branch interprets laws

 

VI.   Hierarchy of U.S.A. Government

 

Constitution of USA

 

 

 

Legislative                                   Executive                     Judicial

 

Congress                                      President               Supreme Court

 

Vice President

 

House of Representatives      Senate

 

90

 

V. United States Presidents and Political Party Affiliation

 

1. George Washington (1789-1797)… ......................................................................................Independent

2. John Adams (1797-1801)...........................................................................................................Federalist

3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809). .......................................................................... Democratic-Republican

4. James Madison (1809-1817)............................................................................... Democratic-Republican

5. James Monroe (1817-1825). ............................................. Democratic-Republican/National Republican

6. John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)....................................................................... Democratic-Republican

7. Andrew Jackson (1829-1837). ................................................................................................ Democratic

8. Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)…. ..................………………………………………….......Democratic

9. William Henry Harrison (1841)…....................……………………………………………………Whig

10. John Tyler (1841-1845)………. ...................……………………………………….Whig/Independent

11. James K. Polk (1845-1849)………………………………….………..…...................…….Democratic

12. Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)……………………………………………..................…………….Whig

13. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)………………………………………………….................………Whig

14. Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)………………………………….……...…….................……Democratic

15. James Buchanan (1857-1861)……………………………………….................…………..Democratic

16. Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)…………………….......……… ................ National Union/Republican 17. Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)…………………………..……...................National Union/Democratic 18. Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)…………………………….…................. ………………….Republican

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)………………………… ................ ……………………Republican

20. James A. Garfield (1881)………………………………………................ ………………..Republican

21. Chester Arthur (1881-1885)…………………………………................ …………………. Republican

22. Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)………………………………................………………….Democratic 23. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)………………………………............... …………………Republican 24. Grover Cleveland (1893-1897)………………………………................………………….Democratic

25. William McKinley (1897-1901)……………………………… ............... …………………Republican 26. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)…………………………… ............... …………………..Republican 27. William Howard Taft (1909-1913)……………………………................ ………………...Republican

28. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)…………………………………................…………….....Democratic

29. Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)…………………………………................. ……………..Republican

30. Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)…………………………………… ................ ……………...Republican

31. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)…………………………………… ................ ………………Republican 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)…… .................…………………………….…………Democratic 33. Harry S Truman (1945-1953)…………… .................………………….………………….Democratic 34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)……................. ………………………………………Republican 35. John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) .................………………………………………………….Democratic

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) .................……………………………………………….Democratic

37. Richard Nixon (1969-1974)…................. ………………………………………………….Republican

38. Gerald Ford (1974-1977)… ................. …………………………………………………….Republican

39. Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)…..................……………………………..................................Democratic

40. Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)…… ................................................ ………………………….Republican

41. George Bush (1989-1993)……................................................ …………………………….Republican

42. Bill Clinton (1993-2001)……………….................................................…………………..Democratic

43. George W. Bush (2001-2009)…………................................................. …………………..Republican

44. Barack Obama (2009-2017)………....................................................……………………..Democratic

45.  Donald Trump (2017-present). ............................................................................................ Republican